Nebraska Dev Ed

Research & Policy

Website Resources:

http://www.nebraskadevelopmentaled.com

Author, teacher, and researcher Mike Rose looks at community college reform in the first of two blog posts found here that focuses on the “heralded” reform recommended in book by Columbia University’s Community College Research Center: Thomas Bailey, Shanna Smith Jaggars, and Davis Jenkins’ Redesigning America’s Community Colleges.

Published Articles

“Core Principles for Transforming Remediation” http://www.completecollege.org/docs/Remediation_Joint_Statement-Embargo.pdf

Expectations Meet Reality: The Underprepared Student and Community Colleges 2016 National Report by Center for Community College Student Engagement

An Excellent Return on Investment  (2014) by Alexandros M. Goudas

TYCA White Paper on Developmental Education Reforms

Cranking Out Credentials — but What About Quality? by Katherine Mangan
Technical colleges in Utah drew criticism for including short-term training programs in their completion numbers. But with colleges under pressure to produce more graduates, the flap illustrates a bigger debate over what counts as a high-quality degree.

Higbee, Jeanne, Dana B. Lundell, and Irene M. Duranczyk. Developmental Education: Policy and Practice. Auburn, CA: National Association for Developmental Education, 2002. Print.http://www.nade.net/site/documents/publications/monograph/Mono%2002/Monograph’02.pdf

Goudas, A. M. (2016). “Core principles in defense of developmental education.” NADE 2016 Conference Presentation: Download here: GoudasNADEPresentationIDDE2016

Casazza, Martha E. and Sharon L. Silverman. Meaningful Access and Support: The Path to College Completition. Council of Learning Assistance and Developmental Education Associates, 2013.

Gianneschi, Matt. A Cure for Remedial Reporting Chaos: Why the U.S. Needs a Standard Method for Measuring Preparedness for the First Year of College. Education Commission of the States, 2014.

Goudas, A. M., & Boylan, H. R. (2012). “Knee-Jerk Reforms on Remediation.” Inside Higher Education Online.

Goudas, A. M., & Boylan, H. R. (2012). Addressing Flawed Research in Developmental EducationJournal of Developmental Education, 38(2), p. 2-13.

Goudas, A.M., & Boylan, H. R. (2013). A brief response to Bailey, Jaggars, and Scott-Clayton. Journal of Developmental Education36(3), 28–32.

Hern, Katie. Accelerated English at Chabot College: A Synthesis of Key Findings. Hayward, CA: California Acceleration Project, 2011.

Bailey, T. R., Jeong, D.W., & Cho, S.W. (2009). Referral, enrollment and completion indevelopmental education sequences in community colleges (CCRC Working Paper No. 15). New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Columbia University, Teachers College. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/referral-enrollment-completiondevelopmental_V2.pdf

Bailey, T. R., Jeong, D. W., & Cho, S. W. (2010). Referral, enrollment and completion in developmental education sequences in community colleges. Economics of Education Review, 29(2), 255-270.

Bailey, T. R. (2009). Rethinking developmental education in community college (CCRC Brief No. 40). New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Columbia University, Teachers College.

Bailey, T. R., Jeong, D.W., & Cho, S.W. (2010). Student progression through developmental sequences in community colleges (CCRC Brief No. 45). New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Columbia University, Teachers College.

Jenkins, D., Speroni, C., Belfield, C., Jaggers, S., & Edgecombe, N. (2010). A model for accelerating academic success of community college remedial English students: Is the accelerated learning program (ALP) effective and affordable? (CCRC Working Paper No. 21). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Edgecombe, N. (2011). Accelerating the academic achievement of students referred to developmental education (CCRC Working Paper No. 30). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Hughes, K. L., & Scott-Clayton, J. (2011). Assessing developmental assessment in community colleges. Community College Review39(4), 327-351.

Scott-Clayton, J., Crosta, P. M., & Belfield, C. R. (2012). Improving the targeting of treatment: Evidence from college remediation (NBER Working Paper No. 18457). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Scott-Clayton, J., Crosta, P. M., & Belfield, C. R. (2014). Improving the targeting of treatment: Evidence from college remediation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis36(3), 371–393.

Scott-Clayton, J., & Rodriguez, O. (2012). Development, discouragement, or diversion? New evidence on the effects of college remediation (NBER Working Paper No. 18328). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

What we know about developmental education outcomes. (2014). Community College Research Center Research Overview. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Belfield, C. R., & Crosta, P. M. (2013, April 19). A better factory model. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2013/04/19/measures-college-efficiency-too-often-ignore-full-chain-production

Scott-Clayton, J. (2012, April 20). Are college entrants overdiagnosed as underprepared? The New York Times Economix Blog. Retrieved from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/20/are-college-entrants-overdiagnosed-as-underprepared/

Hart, B., & Risley, T. (2003). The early catastrophe: The 30 million word gap by age 3. American Educator, Spring, 4-9.

Turner, C. (2014). This is your brain. This is your brain on music. National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/blogs/ed/2014/09/10/343681493/this-is-your-brain-this-is-your-brain-on-music

Kraus, J., Slater, J., Thompson, E. C., Hornickel, J., Strait, D. L., Nicol, T., & White-Schwoch, T. (2014). Music enrichment programs improve the neural encoding of speech in at-risk children. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(36), 11913-11918.

Tough, P. (2012). How children succeed: Grit, curiosity, and the hidden power of character. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Dobbs, D. (2013, December 16). Terrible twos who stay terrible. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/16/terrible-twos-who-stay-terrible/

Francis, D., Diorio, J., Liu, D., & Meaney, M. J. (1999). Nongenomic transmission across generations of maternal behavior and stress responses in the rat. Science, 286, 1155-1158.

Schweinhart, L. J. (2003). Benefits, costs, and explanation of the High/Scope Perry preschool program. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved fromhttp://www.highscope.org/file/Research/PerryProject/Perry-SRCD_2003.pdf

Campbell, F. A., Pungello, E. P., Miller-Johnson, S., Burchinal, M., & Ramey, C. T. (2001). The development of cognitive and academic abilities: Growth curves from an early childhood educational experiment. Developmental Psychology, 37(2), 231-242.

Burchinal, M. R., Campbell, F. A., Bryant, D. M., Wasik, B. H., & Ramey, C. T. (1997). Early intervention and mediating processes in cognitive performance of children of low-income African American families. Child Development, 68(5), 935-954.

Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C. T. (1995). Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. AmericanEducational Research Journal, 32(4), 743-772.

Kristoff, N., & WuDunn, S. (2014, September 12). The way to beat poverty. The New York Times Online. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/14/opinion/sunday/nicholas-kristof-the-way-to-beat-poverty.html

Mischel, W. (2014). The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-Control. New York: Little, Brown and Company.

Posada, J. (2009). Don’t eat the marshmallow! Ted.com. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/joachim_de_posada_says_don_t_eat_the_marshmallow_yet?language=en

Duckworth, A. L., & Peterson, C. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-1101.

Skoe, E., Krizman, J., & Kraus, N. (2013). The impoverished brain: Disparities in maternal education affect the neural response to sound. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33(44), 17221-17231.

Bayol, S. A., Simbi, B. H., Bertrand J. A., & Stickland, N. C. (2008). Offspring from mothers fed a ‘junk food’ diet in pregnancy and lactation exhibit exacerbated adiposity that is more pronounced in females. The Journal of Physiology, 586(13), 3219-3230.

Attewell, P., Lavin, D., Domina, T., & Levey, T. (2006). New evidence on college remediation. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(5), 886-924.

Bahr, P. R. (2008). Does mathematics remediation work?: A comparative analysis of academic attainment among community college students. Research in Higher Education Journal49, 420-450.

Edgecombe, N., Baker, E. D., & Bailey, T. R. (2013). Acceleration through a holistic support model: An implementation and outcomes analysis of FastStart@CCD. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Belfield. C. R., & Crosta, P. M. (2012). Predicting success in college: The importance of placement tests and high school transcripts (CCRC Working Paper No. 42). New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Columbia University, Teachers College.

Scott-Clayton, J. (2012). Do high-stakes placement exams predict college success? (CCRC Working Paper No. 41). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Bailey, T. R., Jaggars, S. S., & Scott-Clayton, J. (2013). Characterizing the effectiveness of developmental education: A response to recent criticism. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. T. (2009). Addressing the needs of underprepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? Journal of Human Resources44(3), 736-771.

Boatman, A. & Long. B. T. (2010). Does remediation work for all students? How the effects of postsecondary remedial and developmental courses vary by level of academic preparation (An NCPR Working Paper). New York, NY: National Center for Postsecondary Research, Columbia University, Teachers College.

Calcagno, J. C., & Long. B. T. (2008). The impact of postsecondary remediation using a regression discontinuity approach: Addressing endogenous sorting and noncompliance (An NCPR Working Paper). New York, NY: National Center for Postsecondary Research, Columbia University, Teachers College.

Jenkins, D., Jaggars, S. S., & Roksa, J. (2009). Promoting gatekeeper course success among community college students needing remediation: Findings and recommendations from a Virginia study (Summary Report)New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Martorell, P. & McFarlin, I. (2011). The effects of college remediation on academic and labor market outcomesThe Review of Economics and Statistics93(2), 436-454.

Edgecombe, N., Cormier, M. S., Bickerstaff, S., & Barragan, M. (2013). Strengthening developmental education reforms: Evidence on implementation efforts from the Scaling Innovation Project (CCRC Working Paper No. 61). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Levin, H. M., & Garcia, E. (2013). Benefit-cost analysis of Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) of the City University of New York (CUNY). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Center for Benefit-Cost Studies in Education. Retrieved from http://www.nyc.gov/html/ceo/downloads/pdf/Levin_ASAP_Benefit_Cost_Report_FINAL_05212013.pdf

Scrivener, S., & Weiss, M. J. (2013). More graduates: Two-year results from an evaluation of Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) for developmental education students(MDRC Policy Brief). New York, NY: MDRC.

Scrivener, S., Weiss, M. J., Ratledge, A., Rudd, T., Sommo, C., & Fresques, H. (2015). Doubling graduation rates: Three-year effects of CUNY’s Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) for developmental education students. New York, NY: MDRC. Retrieved from http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/doubling_graduation_rates_fr.pdf

Twigg, C. A. (2005). Increasing success for underserved students: Redesigning introductory courses. Sarasota Springs, NY: National Center for Academic Transformation.

Twigg, C. A. (2009). Increasing success in developmental math: Following the NCAT playbook. Sarasota Springs, NY: National Center for Academic Transformation.

Linderman, D., & Kolenovic, Z. (2012). Results thus far and the road ahead: A follow-up report on CUNY Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP). New York: Center for Economic Opportunity.

Brunello, G., & Schlotter, M. (2011). Non cognitive skills and personality traits: Labour market relevance and their development in education & training systems. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor. Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp5743.pdf

Cho, S.W., Kopko, E., Jenkins, & C., Jaggers, S. (2012). New evidence of success for community college remedial English students: Tracking the outcomes of students in the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) (CCRC Working Paper No. 53). New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Columbia University, Teachers College.

Adams, P., Bickerstaff, S., Johnsen, H., & Zollars, M. (2012). Adopting and adapting reforms: Replicating the Accelerated Learning Program [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/presentation/adopting-adapting-reforms-alp.html

Kena, G., Aud, S., Johnson, F., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Rathbun, A., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., and Kristapovich, P. (2014). The Condition of Education 2014 (NCES 2014-083). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC. Retrieved [1 August 2015] from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014083.pdf

Rampell, C. (2009, Aug. 27). SAT scores and family income. The New York Times Economix Blog. Retrieved from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/08/27/sat-scores-and-family-income/

Vigdor, J., & Ladd, H. F. (2010). Scaling the digital divide: Home computer technology and student achievement (CALDER Working Paper No. 48). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research.

Warschauer, M., & Ames, M. (2010) Can One Laptop per Child save the world’s poor? Journal of International Affairs, 64(1), 33-51.

Jaggers, S. (2011). Online learning: Does it help low-income and underprepared students?(CCRC Working Paper No. 26). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Lynch, R. G. (2015). The economic and fiscal consequences of improving U.S. educational outcomes. Washington, D. C.: The Washington Center for Equitable Growth.

Issue brief: Childhood lead exposure and educational outcomes. (2013). National Center for Healthy Housing. Retrieved from http://www.nchh.org/Portals/0/Contents/Childhood_Lead_Exposure.pdf

Carnevale, A. P., Rose, S. J., & Cheah, B. (2009). The college payoff: Education, occupations, lifetime earnings. Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/highered/reg/hearulemaking/2011/collegepayoff.pdf

The Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance. (2013). Measure twice: The impact on graduation rates of serving Pell Grant recipients. Washington D. C.

Calahan, M., & Perna, L. (2015). Indicators of higher education equity in the United States: 45 year trend report. Philadelphia, PA: The Pell Institute and The University of Pennsylvania Alliance for Higher Education and Democracy (PennAHEAD). Retrieved from http://www.pellinstitute.org/downloads/publications-Indicators_of_Higher_Education_Equity_in_the_US_45_Year_Trend_Report.pdf

Ariovich, L., & Walker, S. A. (2014). Assessing course redesign: The case of developmental math.Research & Practice in Assessment, 9(Summer), 45-57.

Boylan, H. R., & Bonham, B. S. (Eds.). (2014). Developmental education: Readings on its past, present, and future. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins.

Belfield, C. R., & Levin, H. M. (2009). High school dropouts and the economic losses from juvenile crime in California (California Dropout Research Project Report #16). Santa Barbara, CA: University of California Gevirtz Graduate School of Education.

Weinberg, C. (2013, June 16). United negro college fund updates its slogan, and its brand. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/bottomline/united-negro-college-fund-updates-its-slogan-and-its-brand/

Bahr, P. R. (2010). Revisiting the efficacy of postsecondary remediation: The moderating effects of depth/breadth of deficiency. Research in Higher Education Journal33(2), 177-205.

The rising cost of not going to college. (2014). The PEW Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2014/02/SDT-higher-ed-FINAL-02-11-2014.pdf

Gamoran, A., & Long, D. A. (2006). Equality of Educational Opportunity: A 40-year retrospective(WCER Working Paper No. 2006-9). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin–Madison, Wisconsin Center for Education Research. Retrieved from http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/publications/workingPapers/papers.php

Gerlaugh, K., Thompson, L., Boylan, H. R., & Davis, H. (2007). National study of developmental education II: Baseline data for community colleges. Research In Developmental Education, 20(4), 1-4. Retrieved from http://ncde.appstate.edu/sites/ncde.appstate.edu/files/RiDE%2020-4.pdf

Juszkiewicz, J. (2015, March). Trends in community college enrollment and completion data. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges. Retrieved from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Publications/Reports/Documents/CCEnrollment_2015.pdf

Braga, M., Paccagnella, M., & Pellizzari, M. (2011). Evaluating students’ evaluations of professors. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp5620.pdf

Venezia, A., Bracco, K. R., & Nodine, T. (2010). One-shot deal? Students’ perceptions of assessment and course placement in California’s community colleges. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.

Karp, M. M., & Bork, R. H. (2012). “They Never Told Me What to Expect, so I Didn’t Know What to Do”: Defining and Clarifying the Role of a Community College Student (CCRC Working Paper No. 47). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Jaggars, S. S., & Hodara, M. (2011). The opposing forces that shape developmental education: Assessment, placement, and progression at CUNY community colleges (CCRC Working Paper No. 36). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Anderson, L., & Fulton, M. (2015). Multiple measures for college readiness. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States (ECS). Retrieved from http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/01/17/37/11737.pdf

Saxon, D. P., & Morante, E. A. (2014). Effective student assessment and placement: Challenges and recommendations. Journal of Developmental Education, 37(3), 24-31.

Perez-Pena, R. (2012, July 20). The new community college try. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/education/edlife/the-new-community-college-cunys-multimillion-dollar-experiment-in-education.html

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinkingfast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Gladwell, Malcolm. (2005). Blink. New York: Little, Brown and Co. 52-59.

Steele, C., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797- 811.

Aronson, J. (2002). Stereotype threat: Contending and coping with unnerving expectations. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Hoff, K., & Pandey, P. (2005). Belief systems and durable inequalities: An experimental investigation of Indian caste. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from http://www-siepr.stanford.edu/conferences/Institutions2005/hoff-pandey-belief%20systems.pdf

Inagaki, T. K., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2013). Shared neural mechanisms underlying social warmth and physical warmth. Psychological Science, 24(11), 1-9. Retrieved from http://web.natur.cuni.cz/~houdek3/papers/Inagaki%20et%20al%202013.pdf

Haley, K. J., & Fessler, D M.T. (2005). Nobody’s watching? Subtle cues affect generosity in an anonymous economic game. Evolution of Human Behavior, 26, 245-256.

Nettle, D., Nott, K., & Bateson, M. (2012). ‘Cycle thieves, we are watching you’: Impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft. PLoS ONE, 7(12): e51738. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051738

Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Do defaults save lives? Science, 302, 1338-1339.

Wansink, B. (2014). Slim by design: Mindless eating solutions for everyday life. New York: William Morrow & Company.

Thaler, R. H. (2015, May 8). Unless you are Spock, irrelevant things matter in economic behavior.The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/10/upshot/unless-you-are-spock-irrelevant-things-matter-in-economic-behavior.html

Evans-Pritchard, B. (2013, Winter). Aiming to reduce cleaning costs. Worksthatwork.com. Retrieved from https://worksthatwork.com/1/urinal-fly

Tierney, J. (2011, August 17). Do you suffer from decision fatigue? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/21/magazine/do-you-suffer-from-decision-fatigue.html

Wilkenson, Richard and Kate Pickett. (2009). The spirit level: Why greater equality makes societies stronger. New York: Bloomsbury Press. 113-14.

Shukman, David. (2011, April 25). IQ test motivation—not just intelligence. BBC.co.uk. BBC News Online. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-13156817

Willis, M. T. (2012, January 2). Study: Placebo alters brain function. ABCNews.com. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Depression/story?id=117057

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Goodman, M. J., Sands, A. M., & Coley, R. J. (2015). America’s skills challenge: Millenials and the future. Princeton, N.J.: The ETS Center for Research on Human Capital and Education. Retrieved from https://www.ets.org/s/research/30079/asc-millennials-and-the-future.pdf

Smith, A. A. (2015, June 25). When you’re not ready. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/06/25/floridas-remedial-law-leads-decreasing-pass-rates-math-and-english

Irwin, N. (2015, September 10). How Stanford took on the giants of economics. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/upshot/how-stanford-took-on-the-giants-of-economics.html

Smith, A. A. (2015, May 8). Legislative fixes for remediation. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/05/08/states-and-colleges-increasingly-seek-alter-remedial-classes

Noble, J., & Sawyer, R. (2013). A study of the effectiveness of developmental courses for improving success in college. Iowa City, IA: ACT Research Report Series. Retrieved from https://www.act.org/research/researchers/reports/pdf/ACT_RR2013-1.pdf

Nord, C., Roey, S., Perkins, R., Lyons, M., Lemanski, N., Brown, J., and Schuknecht, J. (2011). The Nation’s Report Card: America’s High School Graduates (NCES 2011-462). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

How grade point average correlates to various personal characteristics: Research report. Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges & Universities. Diversity & Democracy, 13(3), 21. Retrieved from http://www.diversityweb.org/DiversityDemocracy/vol13no3/vol13no3.pdf

Wilkenson, T. (2014). ACT college readiness benchmark attainment by annual family income level 2014. Iowa City, IA: ACT Research and Policy Information Brief 2014-22. Retrieved from https://www.act.org/research/researchers/briefs/pdf/2014-22.pdf

Belfield, C. R. (2014). Improving assessment and placement at your college: A tool for institutional researchers. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/improving-assessment-placement-institutional-research.pdf

Scott-Clayton, J., & Stacey, G. W. (2015). Improving the accuracy of remedial placement. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/improving-accuracy-remedial-placement.pdf

Westrick, P. A., & Allen, J. (2014). Validity evidence for ACT Compass placement tests. Iowa City, IA: ACT Research Report Series. Retrieved from https://www.act.org/research/researchers/reports/pdf/ACT_RR2014-2.pdf

Daly, M. C., & Bengali, L. (2014, May 5). “Is it still worth going to college?” Economic Letter. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Retrieved from http://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/publications/economic-letter/2014/may/is-college-worth-it-education-tuition-wages/

Chetty, R., Hendren, N. Lin, F., Majerovitz, J., & Scuderi, B. (2016). Childhood environment and gender gaps in adulthood. (NBER Working Paper 21936). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w21936